BRL: Braille through Remote Learning


BRL Courses
  • Introduction to Braille
  • Transcribers Course
  • Special Codes Course

    BRL Reference Desk
  • Summary of Rules
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Braille only contractions
  • Problem Words
  • Webster's Dictionary
  • Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
  • Reading List

    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Online gradebook
  • Flashcard program (Java)
  • Downloadable Software
  • Braille Supplies

    Other Links
  • American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
  • Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
  • National Braille Association (NBA)
  • National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)

  • 10. Whole-Word Lower-Sign Contractions to, into,and by

    1. Are subject to the rules for lower-sign contractions.
    2. Should be unspaced from the word, contraction, or composition sign that follows.

      (by)m(ea)ns (of)
      (by)(and) l(ar)ge
      1 (to)10
      (into)2 (part)s
      5 (by)5

      (The) book (you) ref9er) (to)has be(en) lo(st).
      He (was) pass(ed) (by)(wh)ile o(the)rs (were) tak(en).

    3. When there is not space at the end of a line for one of these contractions and the word by should be written out and the in contraction should be used in the word into.
    4. May never be followed unspaced by any whole-word lower-sign contraction.

      (into)his room
      (by) his (mother)

    5. May never be used as parts of words or to form hyphenated compound words.


    6. May be preceded but never followed by punctuation.

      "(To)my (knowledge), )it) did (not) (go) by."
      Did (you) (go) to, (in)to, or (by)(it)?
      Yes--(by)all m(ea)ns!

    7. May be preceded and/or followed by the capital sign and/or the italic sign.

      (Into)New York

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