BRL: Braille through Remote Learning
Introduction to Braille
Special Codes Course
BRL Reference Desk
Summary of Rules
Braille only contractions
Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
Flashcard program (Java)
American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
National Braille Association (NBA)
National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)
1. General Rules for Use of Contractions
- Contractions are to be used:
- When letters they represent fall in the same syllable.
- When they overlap a minor syllable division.
- The ar contraction is used when it overlaps syllable division between the prefix a and a root or base word beginning with r.
- The ea contraction is used when the endings al, an, or ate are added to a root or base word ending with e.
- When they contain the letters a, e, or o in a prefix or suffix and are not part of a diphthong or diaeresis ae or oe.
- Contractions are not to be used:
- When their use would alter the usual braille form of a base word to which a prefix or suffix has been added.
- When they overlap a major syllable division.
- Between root or base word and a prefix or suffix.
- Between base words joined to form a compound word.
- Between consonants that are pronounced separately.
- When letters in the contraction would fall in the diphtong or diaeresis ae or oe.
- When the following vowel diagraphs or trigraphs are involved: ee followed by a, oi followed by ty, oo followed by ne, and eau preceded by bl.
- When their use affects pronunciation by:
- Causing difficult in pronunciation
- Disturbing pronunciation of a consonantal diagraph or trigraph.