BRL: Braille through Remote Learning
Introduction to Braille
Special Codes Course
BRL Reference Desk
Summary of Rules
Braille only contractions
Braille Formats (BANA rules for transcribing textbooks)
Flashcard program (Java)
American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
National Braille Association (NBA)
National Library Service (NLS, Library of Congress)
2. Choice between Alternative Contractions
- Preference is given to the contraction that saves the most space.
me(and)(er) not M(ea)nd(er)
(th)(ence) not (the)nce
(one)(ness) not on(en)ess
bub(ble) not bu(bb)le
(with)(er) not wi(the)r
n(ation) not na(tion)
- Contractions and, for, of, the, and with are used in preference to any other contractions unless more space would be used.
e(ar)(the)n not e(ar)(th)(en)
bro(the)r not bro(th)(er)
ba(the)d not ba(th)(ed)
- One-cell contractions are usd in preference to two-cell contractions.
adh(er)(en)t not ad(here)nt
(st)on(ed) not (st)(one)d
prison(er) not pris(one)r
(sh)ad(ow) not s(had)(ow)
ha(dd)ock not (had)dock
phon(ed) not ph(one)d
Exceptions: the ence contraction is used before the letters d and r.
(com)m(ence)d not (com)m(en)c(ed)
f(ence)r not f(en)c(er)
- Any one-cell contraction is used in preference to the double-letter or ea contractions.
sac(ch)(ar)(in)e not sa(cc)h(ar)(in)e
p(ed)dle not pe(dd)le
(of)f(er) not o(ff)(er)
af(for)d not a(ff)ord
hob(ble) not ho(bb)le
de(ar) not d(ea)r
- Preference is given to the contraction that more nearly approximates correct pronunciation.
(wh)(er)(ever) not (where)v(er)
(wh)(er)e'(er) not (where)'(er)
di(spirit)(ed) not (dis)pirit(ed)