BRL: Braille through Remote Learning

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Session 8 page

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  • Session 8: Part-word final-letter contractions

    There are 14 part-word final-letter contractions. These contractions are two-cell contractions -- the final letter of the word preceded by one of several dot combinations - Dot 4-6, Dots 5-6, or Dot 6:


    Contraction Dot 4-6 (5 words) Dots 5-6 (7 words) Dot 6 (2 words)
    ound 46145 whitespace
    ance 4615 whitespace whitespave
    ence 5615 whitespace
    ong whitespace 561245 whitespace
    ful whitespace 56 whitespace
    sion 461345 whitespce whitespace
    tion whitespace 561345 whitespace
    ation whitespace whitespace 61345
    less 46234 whitespace whitespace
    ness whitespace 56234 whitespace
    ount 462345 whitespace whitespace
    ment whitespace 562345 whitespace
    ity whitespace 5613456 whitespace
    ally whitespace whitespace 613456

    These contractions are a useful and "transcriber-friendly" group of contractions. As the general rules below state, the most confusing aspect about this group is their use for the whole-words "less" and "ally". Neither of these are permitted.

    It is also useful to remind you that, in general, one-cell signs take precedence over two cell signs if they both require the same amount of space. However, that rule is null and void if the use of the two-cell contraction will save more space than a combination of one-cell signs. An exception to the rule is as follows:

    If the letters "ence" are followed by an "r" or a "d", use the "ence" contraction instead of the "en" and "er/ed" contraction.

    Another exception to the syllable-break rule is the use of the "ness" contraction in use to make a word feminine, such as "baroness". In these words, the "ness" contraction is used.

    The rules for this group are relatively straight-forward:

    1. Final-letter Contractions
      1. Are subject to the general rules for the use of contractions.
      2. May never represent whole words.
        less ally

      3. May be used only in the middle or at the end of a word.
        ele(ment)al m(en)tal
        b(less) lesson
        c(ance)r ance(st)or

      4. May be used at the beginning of a line in a divided word.

      5. May never be preceded by the apostrophe or the hyphen.
        con-(st)i-tu-tion grey'(ou)nd
        re(st)-less-ness re-ally
        com-m(en)t-(ed) 'tion!

      6. The contraction ness may be used in easily read words, but never when the root word ends in en or in.
        gov(er)(ness) (ch)iefta(in)ess
        b(ar)o(ness) citiz(en)ess

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