Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription



Search Formats

  • Rule 1
  • Rule 2
  • Rule 3
  • Rule 4
  • Rule 5
  • Rule 6
  • Rule 7
  • Rule 8
  • Rule 9
  • Rule 10
  • Rule 11
  • Rule 12
  • Rule 13
  • Rule 14
  • Rule 15
  • Rule 16
  • Rule 17
  • Rule 18
  • Rule 19


    BANA Resources Tools and resources Organizations

    Other links

    Textbooks for all grade levels and in all areas of study have changed dramatically during the two decades that have passed since the Code of Braille Textbook Formats and Techniques,1977 was adopted by the predecessor of the Braille Authority of North America (BANA). For many of these years teachers, transcribers and, more recently, translation typists have expressed the need for braille code rules to be presented in a clear and well-organized manner. In response, the Textbook Format Technical Committee has worked diligently to formulate precise, comprehensive, and consistent directives. The Textbook Format Braille Code, 1997 is the result of those efforts. While the physical appearance of this Code represents a major change, the provisions it contains are not so new and different as they are expanded, reorganized, and reworded versions of the existing rules.

    Directives set forth in Rules 1-19 of this code are intended for use in transcribing English textbooks for all fields of study except where technical materials require special notations provided in the offcial BANA codes for computer, mathematics, and music braille. Rules of the recently adopted Braille Code for Columned Materials and Tables, as developed by the Ad Hoc Tables Committee, reflect the requirements of the BANA Computer, Literary, Mathematics, Music, and Textbook Format Technical Commitees. These rules have been incorporated into Rules 7 and 8 of this Code with only necessary changes and minimal additions. Further consultations with BANA technical committees have ensured that other rules of this Code, where possible and practical, also deal with print formats in a consistent manner.

    The Textbook Format Technical Committee is confident that the Textbook Format Braille Code, 1997 will provide reliable help for transcribers, translation typists, and teachers in the production of uniform braille formats that will be beneficial to braille readers at all grade levels. An accompanying volume contains print examples taken from a wide variety of textbooks currently used in the educational system. Relevant portions of these examples are presented in simulated braille to illustrate directives set forth in Rules 1 through 19.

    BANA Textbook Format Technical Committee
    *Ralph E. McCracken, Chairman 1979-1981
    *Alice M. Mann (1979-1995) Chairman 1981-1995
    Barbara Sheperdigian (1985- ) Chairman 1995-
    Jane Caruvana (1981-1983)*Elizabeth C. Smith (1979-1983)
    Alice M. Childers (1989-)Barbara H. Tate (1979-)
    Margaret Craig (1979-1993)Jane Vermeer (1979-1981)
    Mary Klattenhoff (1986-1988) Joan G. Yehl (1989-)
    George Ossentjuk (1989-) 
    Table of Contents

    Developed by
    The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    Copyright © 1996 -