Braille Formats
Principles of Print to Braille Transcription
1997


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  • Rule 18

    Unstressed Diacritics, Diacritics, Phonetics
    Materials for Speech Instruction

    1. General provisions.Written systems for representing the sounds of speech appear frequently in textbooks for all grade levels. When a braille notation system is provided in this Code rule to represent the system shown in that text should be reproduced in the braille edition.

      1. Print and braille notation systems. Even though a print notation system is specifically named or identified in th text, it may not resemble nor may it be compatible with the braille notation system given in this Code rule for that particular print system. For example, it must be noted that although many authors use the terms phonics or phonetics for their methods of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words, in this Code these terms apply exclusively to notations that use the International Phonetic Alphabet. The entire text must be examined carefully with reference to the exact print notation(s) before selecting the appropriate braille notation system(s).

        Sections of this Code rule provide specific tables of braille symbols and rules of usage for notation systems, as follows.

        Unstressed diacritics, Section 2
        Diacritics, Section 3
        Phonetics, Section 4

          (1) The transcriber must be aware that braille symbols and usage rules for representing the print signs and characters that appear in these notation systems are not interchangeable even though the same print signs and characters may appear in all three systems.

          (2) Whenever there is uncertainty about the identification of print notation system(s) or about the correlation of print and braille notation systems, assistance should be sought from a textbook format braille specialist who is experienced in the field of linguistics.

          (3) The Initial Teaching Alphabet (ITA). This alphabet and similar augmented Latin alphabets cannot be reproduced in braille, because they contain print signs for which there are no officially assigned braille symbols, or for which conflicting symbols have been assigned in the three braille notation systems that are provided in this Code. Therefore, transcribers must not attempt to devise braille symbols to represent the ITA or similar alphabets.

      2. Variations in pronunciation and syllabication. When pronunciations and syllable divisions shown in a print text differ from those shown in the dictionary being used for reference in the transcription, always follow the print text when brailling material showing syllabified pronunciation.

      3. Placement of the tables of pronunciation

          (1) Full-length dictionary. In a full-length dictionary, follow the provisions of Rule 19, Section 2b.

          (2) Dictionary excerpt or facsimile. In a dictionary excerpt or facsimile, follow the provisions of Rule 19, Sections 12b and 12c.

          (3) Glossary, vocabulary, or dictionary section. In a text that includes a glossary, vocabulary, or dictionary section, follow the provisions given in Rule 19, Section 2a.

          (4) Textbooks with a table of pronunciation. The inclusion of a pronunciation table in individual volumes of the braille edition is determined by whether or not pronunciation symbols are used in those volumes.

            (a) The print pronunciation table., transcribed in the format provided in Section 1d below, must be placed in the braille text according to its placement in the print text.

            (b) In the preliminary pages at the front of all other volumes in which pronunciation symbols are used, place a transcription of the table using the same format as directed above, abut omitting the print page number(s). The preliminary page placement of the table must be is accordance with Rule 2, Sections 1a and 1b. Notice of the placement of the repeated table and its preliminary braille page number(s) must be given on the Transcriber's Notes page(s) in these volumes.

          (5) Textbooks without a table of pronunciation

            (a) When the text does not included a pronunciation table, the transcriber must prepare a list of all pronunciation symbols used in a particular volume for placement in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.

            (b) The list must include braille symbols provided in this Code rule to represent the particular print pronunciation system, signs of enclosure, syllable stress, and syllable division that are used in the text.

            (c) Precede the list with cell-5 category heading, Pronunciation Symbols, and list the symbols in the following order: special enclosure symbols, syllable stress symbols, syllable division symbols, and pronunciation symbols.

      4. Format for tables of pronunciation

          (1) If the heading is shown for the print table, follow the provisions given Rule 4. When no heading is shown, place Pronunciation Table as a centered heading. If a pronunciation table must be continued on one or more braille pages, repeat the heading followed by (cont.) at the top of each of these pages. No blank line is required after this repeated heading unless a category heading immediately follows.

          (2) When the print table is shown in a box, follow the provisions given in Rule 6, Section 3b; however, any vertical lines that are shown in the print table should be omitted in braille.

          (3) Print pronunciation signs must be represented by the braille symbols that are provided in this Code rule for the notation system(s) shown in the text. Special provisions for transcribing certain tables of pronunciation are provided, as follows.

          Facsimiles of summary pronunciation tables, Rule 19, Section 12c
          Phonetic pronunciation tables, Rule 18, Section 4e

          (4) If the print table shows pronunciation signs and example words arranged in separate columns, disregard this format and present the material as provided below. For the one exception see (5) below.

            (a) When the text identifies pronunciation signs by categories, such as vowels, constants, and diphthongs, place each of the category headings as a cell-5 braille heading above the symbols it identifies.

            (b) Each pronunciation symbol must begin in cell 1, followed after one blank cell by the example word(s) or identification shown in the text. When neither example words nor identifications are shown, give the name of the print sign or a brief description of its shape. All runovers of example words or identifications must begin in cell 3.

            (c) If a listed pronunciation symbol consists of only right-hand or only lower-cell dots, it must be followed after one blank cell by its dot number identification enclosed in parentheses and brailled according to Rule 1, Section 15b(1).

            (d) In the margin listing, do not use the letter indicator before a single letter, a modified letter, or a letter combination.

            (e) In the identification of a symbol, the letter indicator must be used before a single letter, a modified letter, or a letter combination that corresponds to a short-form word.

            (f) Example words

              [1] When boldface, italics, colored type, or underlining is used for the listed print pronunciation signs and/or for letters in example words to show similar sound, do not retain the special typeface. Such emphasized letters must be brailled as shown below.

              Print Braille
              a hat Graphic of simulated braille
              even Graphic of simulated braille

              [2] Example words must be written only in uncontracted braille. Do not repeat the words in their contracted forms.

              [3] If an example word shows diacritic or phonetic notation, it must be transcribed according o provisions given for these notations in Section 3 and 4 below.

          (5) If the print table shows two or more columns of pronunciation signs that are related to a single column of example words or explanations, retain this tabular format in accordance with Rule 8.

            (a) Use of the letter indicator with listed symbols and in their identifications must be in accordance with (d) and (e) above.

            (b) Example words must be brailled according to (f) above.

    2. Unstressed diacritics. To correctly identify the notation system(s) used in a text it is necessary to examine the entire book--not simply a few isolated examples of pronunciation. For the purposes of this Code section, a print notation system is considered to be simple, unstressed diacritics when it contains only letters of the Latin alphabet and/or any of the special letters and diacritic marks that are provided in Sections 3f(1)-(12) below. In unstressed diacritics, syllable stress is shown only by special typeface-no stress signs are used.

      1. General provisions for unstressed diacritics

          (1) For the placement and format of pronunciation tables, see Sections 1c and 1d above.

          (2) All words or portions of words shown in unstressed diacritic notation must be transcribed in uncontracted braille.

          Contractions for to, into, and by must not precede single letter sounds, misspelled words, or portions of words in this notation system.

          (3) In transcribing unstressed diacritic notation, follow the directives in Sections 3e(2)-(5) below, using the braille diacritic symbols given in Section 3f below.

      2. Enclosure symbols for unstressed diacritics. Follow print copy as to the signs of enclosure shown, using the braille symbols and directives provided in Section 3b below.

      3. Syllable division in unstressed diacritics

          (1) Respelled words must not be divided at the ends of braille lines except between syllables shown in the print text.

          (2) The braille hyphen (36) must replace the print space, hyphen, or other syllable separation shown in the text. Explain the substitution in a transcriber's note.

      4. Special typefaces showing syllable stress in unstressed diacritics

          (1) Primary stress only

            (a) When the text shows primary syllable stress by the use of capital letters, the appropriate single or double capital indicator must precede the affected syllable.

            (b) If a text indicates primary syllable stress by any one special typeface, such as italics, boldface, colored type or underlining, use only the braille italic indicator preceding the affected syllable.

          (2) Primary and secondary stress. When primary and secondary syllable stress are shown in print by the use of an two special typefaces (i.e., capital letters, italics, boldface, small caps of underlining), indicate the stresses as follows. Use capital letters to represent primary syllable stress and italics to represent secondary syllable stress. This usage must be explained in a transcriber's note.

          (3) Do not insert a braille hyphen before a syllable printed in special typeface, capitals, or underlined unless a blank space, hyphen, or other separation is shown in the text.

          (4) Only the termination symbol (6,3) must be inserted to terminate the effect of the italic or capital indicators. If a print hyphen, blank space, or other syllable separation is shown following letters printed in capitals, special typeface, or underlined, the termination symbol must precede the hyphen.

    3. Diacritics. To correctly identify the notation system(s) used in a text it is necessary to examine the entire text--not simply a few isolated example of written pronunciation. For the purposes of this Code section, a print notation system is considered to be diacritic when it contains letters of the Latin alphabet and/or any of the diacritic marks special letters provided in Sections 3f(1)-(12) below. In diacritic notation, syllable stress is shown by stress signs.

      1. General provisions for diacritics

          (1) For the placement and format of pronunciation tables, see Sections 1c and 1d above.

          (2) All words or portions of words shown in diacritic notation must be transcribed in uncontracted braille. Contractions for to, into, and by must not precede single letter sounds, respelled words, or portions of words written in diacritic notation.

          (3) In transcribing diacritic notation, follow the directives in Section 3e below, using the braille diacritic symbols given in Section 3f below.

      2. Enclosure symbols for diacritics. Follow the print copy as to enclosure signs shown, using the braille symbols and directives provided below.

        dots 2-3-5-6 ( ) left and right parentheses
        dot 6dots 2-3-5-6 ] left square bracket
        dots 2-3-5-6dot 3 ] right square bracket
        dots 1-2-3-5-6 / \ left slash or left backslash
        dots 2-3-4-5-6 / \ right slash or right backslash
        dots 1-2-5-6 | | left and right vertical bars
        dots 5-6dots 2-3-6 > left angle bracket
        dots 3-5-6dots 2-3 < right angle bracket

          (1) Do not confuse the angle bracket enclosure signs with arrowheads. As a general rule, the enclosure signs appear in pairs, whereas the arrowheads appear singly.

          (2) If either lightface or boldface type is used for enclosure signs, this must be ignored in the braille edition. When one or both enclosure signs are omitted, follow the print copy.

          (3) Diacritic enclosure symbols must be unspaced from the material they enclose except where a space is shown in print preceding a partial pronunciation.

          (4) The diacritic enclosure symbols other than parentheses and square brackets must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5. See also Sections 1c(5)(b) and (c) above.

      3. Syllable stress in diacritics If syllables that are marked with stress signs are also printed in capital letters or a special typeface, ignore the capitalization or typeface. Use only the following braille symbols as provided below to represent syllable stress in diacritic notation.

        dots 3-4 primary syllable stress
        dots 1-6 secondary syllable stress
        dots 5-6 tertiary syllable stress

          (1) Though different print signs may be shown either before of after syllables to indicate variations in stress, the appropriate braille stress symbol always must be placed before the affected syllable, replacing the hyphen or other print sign indicating syllable division.

          (2) Stress symbols must be brailled unspaced from the first letter or symbol of the affected syllables. A blank cell must not precede a stress symbol except where a print space precedes a partial pronunciation.

          (3) When the text includes a statement about stress sign placement that differs from the braille placement, that statement must be brailled as printed. A transcriber's note must be inserted before that section of the text to explain the braille usage.

          (4) If stress signs are not included in the print table of pronunciation, the syllable stress symbols that are used in a volume must be included in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5. The placement of these braille stress symbols before affected syllables must be stated. When a text does not include a pronunciation table, see Section 1c(5) above.

      4. Syllable division in diacritics

          (1) Words or portions of words that show diacritic marking(s) must not be divided at the ends of braille lines except between the syllables shown in the print text.

          (2) Regular hyphen. In a divided word the regular hyphen (36) must be used at the end of the first line and the stress symbol, if any, must precede the first syllable on the second braille line.

          (3) Diacritic hyphen. Except at the beginning of a word, the diacritic hyphen (25) must be used before each unstressed syllable to represent the hyphen, centered dot, or blank space shown between the syllables in the print text.

            (a) When the text shows stress signs printed after stressed syllables, the diacritic hyphen must be inserted in braille to replace the transposed print stress sign except at the end of a word.

            (b) The diacritic hyphen must be brailled unspaced from the letter or symbol that precedes or follows it except where a space is shown in print before partial pronunciation.

            (c) When used in a volume, the symbol for the diacritic hyphen must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5. See also Section 1c(5) above.

      5. Diacritic notation

          (1) Special typeface in diacritic notation

            (a) If entire syllables that are marked with stress signs are also printed in capital letters or a special typeface, this must be ignored in braille. Use only the syllable stress symbols that are provided in Section 3c above.

            (b) When individual italic or capital letters appear in diacritic notation, the braille italic or capital indicator must precede each affected letter or modified letter and the termination symbol must not be used.

            (c) The braille italic indicator must always precede all other diacritic symbols affecting a letter.

          (2) Diacritic marking of a single letter

            (a) If diacritic marks appear both above and below a letter, or both through and below a letter, the mark below the letter must be transcribed first.

            (b) When two or more diacritical appear above a letter, the mark that is nearest the letter must be transcribed first.

          (3) Diacritic marking of two letters. If a diacritic marking affects two separate letters as if they were a unit, the braille symbol(s) that represent this diacritic marking must precede only the first letter.

          (4) Diacritic marking of ligatured letters. When only one of a pain of ligatured letters is marked, the diacritic symbol must precede the affected letter. If both ligatured letters are marked, the diacritic symbol must precede the ligature symbol.

          (5) Diacritic symbols standing alone

            (a) If a stress sign is shown standing alone in the print text, it must be represented in braille by the appropriate word dot or dotsfollowed by the numerals for its dot numbers. For the example, use the expression dots 34 to represent the primary stress sign.

            (b) When shown standing alone, a single letter, a modified letter, or a letter combination that corresponds to a short-form word must be preceded by the letter indicator.

            (c) If either of the special letters that are provided in Section 3f(11) below is shown standing alone in the print text, the braille symbol must be preceded by the letter indicator.

            (d) When a diacritic mark other than a stress sign or a special letter is shown standing alone in the print text, e.g., the macron, breves, or circumflex, in braille the name of the mark must be substituted for the print sign. If the name used in the text differs from that given in this Code, follow the print copy.

      6. Table of diacritic symbols. Authors and publishers differ widely in the use of diacritic markings, not only using the same mark for different sounds, but also using different marks for the same sound. No attempt should to be made to equate these print signs with certain sounds. Instead, it is important that the transcriber match each print diacritic marking with the appropriate braille symbol or symbols.

        Braille symbols given in the sections below represent only the print diacritic marks; therefore, a braille diacritic symbol must always be followed by the unspaced letter that it affects.

          (1) Breve dots 4-5

          (2) Cedilla or ogonek, hooked letters dots 3-5-6

          (3) Circumflex dots 2-3-5

          â ê î ô û

          (4) Crossbar or underbar - _ dots 2-5-6

          (5) Ligatures, tied lettersdots 2-3-6

          (6) Macron dots 4-5-6

          (7) Overdot dot 2

          (8) Tilde dot 5

          (9) Umlaut, diaeresis dots 2-3

          (10) Accented letters: acute dots 3-4-5 and grave dots 1-2-6

          (11) Special letters

          dots 2-6 schwa, turned e
          dots 1-2-5-6 eng, n with hooked right leg

          (12) Other diacritic symbols
          dot 3 apostrophe, spaced as in print
          dot 4 y superscript indicator, unspaced before affected letter

    4. Phonetics. For the purposes of this Code section, a print notation system is considered to be phonetic when it contains characters of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

      1. General provisions

          (1) All speech sounds, words, or parts of words that contain phonetic notation must be transcribed in uncontracted braille, using the symbols provided in Section 4f below. The contraction for to, into, and by must not precede them.

          (2) Follow print copy for the spacing of all phonetic symbols.

      2. Phonetic enclosure symbols. Follow the print copy as to enclosure signs shown, using the braille symbols below.

        dot 6dots 1-2-3-4-5-6 [ left square bracket
        dots 1-2-3-4-5-6dot 6 ] right square bracket
        dot 6dots 1-2-3-5-6 / \ left square bracket or left blackslash
        dots 2-3-4-5-6dot 6 / \ right slash or right backslash

          (1) If either lightface or boldface type is used for enclosure signs, this must be ignored in braille. When one or both enclosure signs are omitted, follow the print copy.

          (2) Phonetic enclosure symbols must be unspaced from any phonetic material they enclose.

          (3) The phonetic enclosure symbols must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5. See also Section 4e(2) below.

      3. Phonetic syllable stress

          (1) A stress signs symbol must be brailled unspaced before the first phonetic symbol in the affected syllable.

          (2) If stress signs are not included in the print table of pronunciation, the syllable stress symbols that are used in a volume must be included in the special symbols list according to Rule 2, Section 5.

      4. Phonetic syllable division and notation

          (1) Words written in phonetic notation must not be divided at the ends of braille lines except between syllables shown in the print text.

          (2) When a hyphen is shown between phonetic syllables, use the braille hyphen (36) spaced as shown in print. Follow the print copy if a blank space is shown between syllables.

          (3) If the print phonetic notation uses a dot or period to indicate a syllable break within a word, substitute the braille hyphen (36) for the print sign.

          (4) Special typeface in phonetic notation.Because emphasis in phonetic notation is indicated only by modifiers, any special print typefaces used for this purpose in phonetic notation must be ignored in the braille edition.

          (5) When shown standing alone, a single IPA character, a modified character, or a letter combination that corresponds to a short-form word must be preceded by the letter indicator.

      5. Phonetic tables of pronunciation. In addition to the general provisions given in Section 1d above, follow the directives below.

          (1) Placement of the pronunciation tables in the braille edition must be in accordance with Sections 1c(1)-(5) above.

          (2) Phonetic symbols must be listed under appropriate cell-5 category headings and placed in the following order.

          Phonetic enclosure symbols
          Phonetic syllable stress symbols
          IPA symbols
          Mathematical and nonalphabetical symbols

          (3) In the margin listing, do not use the letter indicator before a single letter, a modified letter, or a letter combination. Omit any enclosure symbols that are shown with the listed phonetic symbols.

          (4) In the explanation of a listed symbol, the letter indicator must be used before a single letter, a modified letter, or a letter combination that corresponds to a short-form word. Follow the print copy for the names, descriptions, or examples given with the listed symbols.

      6. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). This Code section is based on the International Phonetic Alphabet, revised to 1989, by the International Phonetic Association. No attempt should be made to equate these print signs with specific sounds. Instead, the transcriber should match phonetic notation shown in the text with appropriate braille symbols.

        NOTE:Names and descriptions shown following the characters listed in this Code section are to be used only when preparing a pronunciation table in accordance with Section 1c(5) above for a text in which names or descriptions of the IPA characters are not provided.

          (1) IPA consonants, vowels, and other symbols. To aid transcribers, IPA characters are slightly enlarged and listed in an approximate alphabetical order according to physical appearance. This arrangement is an adaption of systems used in the following: Phonetic Symbol Guide by Geoffrey K. Pullum and William A. Ladusaw (University of Chicago Press, 1986) and An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, Fourth Edition, by A.C. Gimson (Edward Arnold, a division of Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1989).

      7. dots 3-4 primary syllable stress
        dots 1-6 secondary syllable stress
        dot 1 a lowercase
        dot 1dots 3-5 a turned
        dot 1dots 3-4-6dots 1-5 ash, a-e ligature
        dots 4-6dot 1 script a
        dots 4-6dot 1dots 3-5 script a turned
        dots 1-2 b lowercase
        dots 1-2 dots 2-3-5 b hooktop
        dot 6 dots 1-2 small cap b
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-2 beta
        dots 1-4 c lowercase
        dots 1-4 dot 3 c apostrophe
        dots 1-4 dots 2-3-5 c hooktop
        dots 1-4 dots 2-3-6 c cedilla
        dots 1-4 dots 2-5-6 c curly-tail
        dots 1-4 dots 2-5-6 c hacek or wedge
        dot 6 dots 1-4 stretched c
        dots 1-4 dots 2-5 open o, c turned
        dots 1-4-5 d lowercase
        dots 1-4-5 dots 2-3-5 d hooktop
        dots 1-4-5 dots 2-3-6 d right-tail
        dots 1-4-5 dots 2-3-4-6 d-yogh digraph
        dots 1-4-5 dots 3-4-6 dots 2-3-4-6 d-yogh ligature
        dots 1-3-4-6 edh, eth
        dots 1-5 e lowercase
        dots 1-5 dots 3-5 schwa, e turned
        dots 1-5 dots 3-5 dots 2-3-6 schwa right-hook
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-5 epsilon
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-5 dots 3-5 epsilon reversed
        dots 1-2-4 f lowercase
        dots 1-2-4 dots 3-5 f turned
        dots 1-2-4-5 g lowercase
        dots 1-2-4-5 dots 2-3-5 g hooktop
        dot 6 dots 1-2-4-5 small cap g
        dot 6 dots 1-2-4-5 dots 2-3-5 sm ll cap g hooktop
        dots 1-2-5 h lowercase
        dots 1-2-5 dots 3-5 h turned
        dots 1-2-5 dots 2-3-5 h hooktop
        dots 1-4-6 dots 3-4-6 dots 1-3-4-6 heng hooktop, simultaneous and x
        dots 1-2-5 dots 2-5-6 h barred
        dot 6 dots 1-2-5 small cap h
        dots 2-4 i lowercase
        dots 2-4 dots 2-5-6 i barred
        dot 6 dots 2-4 small cap i
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 2-4 iota
        dots 2-4-5 j lowercase
        dots 2-4-5 dots 3-5-6 j curly-tail
        <dots 2-4-5 dots 2-5-6 j haek or wedge
        dots 1-3 k lowercase
        dots 1-3 dot 3 k apostrophe
        dots 1-3 dots 2-3-5 k hooktop
        dots 1-3 dots 3-4-6 dots 1-2-3-4 k-p with tie-bar
        dots 1-2-3 l lowercase
        dots 1-2-3 dots 2-5-6 l belted
        dots 1-2-3 dots 2-6 l tilde
        dots 1-2-3 dots 2-3-6 l right-tail
        dot 6 dots 1-2-3 small cap l
        dots 1-2-3 dots 2-3-4-6 l-yogh digraph
        dots 1-2-3 dots 3-4-6 dots 2-3-4-6 l-yogh ligature
        dots 1-3-4 m lowercase
        dots 1-3-4 dots 3-5 m turned
        dots 1-3-4 dots 2-3-6 dots 3-5 m long right leg turned
        dots 1-3-4 dots 2-5-6 m hooked right leg
        dots 1-3-4-5 n lowercase
        dots 1-2-4-5-6 eng, n hooked right leg
        dots 1-3-4-5 dots 3-5-6 n hooked left leg
        dots 1-3-4-5 dots 2-3-6 n right-tail
        dot 1 dots 1-3-4-5 small cap n
        dots 1-3-5 o lowercase
        dots 1-3-5 dots 2-5-6 o barred
        dots 1-3-5 dots 2-3-6 o slashed
        dots 1-3-5 dots 3-4-6>
<img src= ethel, o-e ligature
        dot 1 dots 1-3-5 dots 3-4-6 dots 1-5 small cap ethel, o-e ligature
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-2-4 phi
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 2-3-4-5 theta
        dots 4-5-6 dots 3-5-6 slashed zero, null or empty set
        dots 2-4-6 bull's eye
        dots 1-2-3-4 p lowercase
        <dots 1-2-3-4 dot 3 p apostrophe
        dots 1-2-3-4 dots 2-3-5 p hooktop
        dots 1-2-3-4-5 q lowercase
        dots 1-2-3-4-5 dot 3 q apostrophe
        dots 1-2-3-4-5 dots 2-3-5 q hooktop
        dots 1-2-3-5 r lowercase
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 3-5 r turned
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 2-3-5 r fishhook
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 3-5-6 r long-leg
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 3-5-6 dots 3-5 r long-leg turned
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 2-3-6 r right-tail
        dots 1-2-3-5 dots 12-3-6 dots3-5 r right-tail turned
        dot 1 dots 1-2-3-5 R small cap r
        dot 1 dots 1-2-3-5 dots 3-5 inverted small cap r
        dots 2-3-4 s lowercase
        dots 2-3-4 dots 2-3-6 s right-tail
        dots 1-4-6 esh, stretched s
        dots 1-4-6 dots 2-5-6 esh barred
        dots 1-4-6 dots 3-5-6 esh curly-tail
        dots 2-3-4-5 t lowercase
        dots 2-3-4-5 dot 3 t apostrophe
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 2-3-6 t right-tail
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 2-3-6 dot 3 t right-tail apostrophe
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 2-3-5 t hooktop
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 3-4-5 t-s digraph
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 3-4-6 dots 3-4-5 t-s with tie-bar
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 3-4-6 dots 3-4-5 (same as t-s diagraph, but must closer together t-s ligature
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 1-4-6 t-esh digraph
        dots 2-3-4-5 dots 3-4-6 dots 1-4-6 (same as above, but much closer together) t-esh ligature
        dots 1-3-6 u lowercase
        dots 1-3-6 dots 2-5-6 u bar
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-3-6 upsilon
        dots 1-2-3-6 v lowercase
        dots 1-2-3-6 dots 3-5 v turned
        dots 4-6 dots 1-2-3-6 script v
        dots 12-3-5-6 dots 1-2-4-5 baby gamma
        dots 2-4-5-6 w lowercase
        dots 2-4-5-6 dots 3-4 w inverted
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 2-4-5-6 omega closed
        dots 1-3-4-6 x lowercase
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-3-4-6 chi
        dots 1-3-4-5-6 y lowercase
        dots 1-3-4-5-6 dots 3-5 y turned
        dot 6 dots 1-3-4-5-6 small cap y
        dots 2-3-5-6 dots 1-2-3 lambda
        dots 1-3-5-6 z lowercase
        dots 1-3-5-6 dots 2-3-6 z right-tail
        dots 1-3-5-6 dots 1-3-5-6 z curly-tail
        dots 2-3-4-6 yogh
        dots 2-3-4-6 dots 3-5-6 yogh curly-tail
        dots 3-4-5 glottal stop
        dots 3-4-5 dots 2-5-6 glottal stop barred
        dots 1-2-6 reversed glottal stop
        dots 1-2-6 dots 2-5-6 reversed glottal stop barred
        dots 1-2-3-4-5-6 ! exclamation point
        dots 1-2-5-6 | vertical bar
        dots 1-2-5-6dots 1-2-5-6 || double vertical bar
        gifs dots 2-5-6 dots 2-5-6 dots 1-2-5-6 double barred vertical bar

        (2) IPA vowel length indicators. To represent vowel length use the appropriate braille symbol shown below. The vowel length indicator must be placed unspaced after the affected vowel.

        dots 4-5-6 long, triangular colon
        dots 5-6 half-long, half triangular colon
        dots 4-5 extra short, breve

        (3) IPA diacritics and modifiers. Various diacritics and modifiers may be printed under, over, or after IPA characters as shown below. All braille symbols representing these modifiers must be placed unspaced after the affected IPA characters.

          (a) Modifiers shown under IPA characters

          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 voiceless, underring
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-3 voiced, subscript wedge
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-5 breathy voiced, subscripty umlaut
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-5-6 creaky voiced, subscript tilde
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-6 linguolabial, subscript curly arch
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-3-5 dental, subscript bridge
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-3-5-6 apical, subscript inverted bridge
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 2-3-6 laminal, subscript box
          dots 3-4-5-6 dots 3-5 more rounded, subscript left half-ring
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 3-5-6 less rounded, subscript left half-ring
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dot 2 advanced, subscript plus
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-3 retracted, under-bar
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-5 syllabic, subscript vertical bar
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-5-6 non-syllabic, subscript arch
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-6 raised, subscript up tack
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-3-5 lowered, subscript down tack
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-3-5-6 advanced tongue root, subscript left tack
          dots 3-4-5-6 dot 2 dots 2-3-6 retracted tongue root, subscript right tack

          (b) Modifiers shown over IPA characters

          dots 1-4-5-6 dot 2 centralized, umlaut or diaeresis
          dots 1-4-5-6 dots 2-3 mid-centralized, x-mark
          dots 1-4-5-6 dots 2-5 nasalized, tilde

          (c) Modifiers shown after IPA characters

          dot 4 dots 1-2-5 aspirated, superscript h
          dot 4 dots 2-4-5-6 labialized, superscript w
          dot 4 dots 2-4-5 palatalized, superscript j
          dot 4 dots 2-3-5-6 dot 6 dots 1-2-4-5 velarized, superscript gamma
          dot 4 dots 1-2-6 pharyngealized, superscript reversed glottal stop
          dot 4 dots 1-3-4-5 nasal release, superscript n
          dot 4 dots 1-2-3 lateral release, superscript l
          dot 4 dots 1-4-5 no audible release, superscript corner

        (4) IPA tones and word accents. Tones and word accents are printed as shown below. The braille symbols that represent these level markers must be unspaced after the affected IPA characters.

        dots 1-2-3-4-6 dots 2-6 (symbol is double accents above letter, slanted right) extra high, double acute
        dots 1-2-3-4-6 dots 2-5-6 (symbol is single accent above letter, slanted right) high, acute
        dots 1-2-3-4-6 dots 2-5 mid, macron
        dots 1-2-3-4-6 dots 2-3 (symbol is double accents above letter, slanted left) low, grave
        dots 1-2-3-4-6 dot 2 (symbol is single accent above letter, slanted left) extra low, double grave

        (5) Mathematical and nonalphabetical signs in phonetic notation. Use the braille symbols given in Rule 5, Section 2 to represent the mathematical and other nonalphabetical signs shown in phonetic notation. When used in a text, these symbols must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

  • Materials for articulation and speech instruction. When the special symbols provided in this Code section are used in a text, they must be included in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

    1. Anatomical illustrations. Diagrams of cross sections of the human head that are shown in the print text to illustrate points of articulation and /or the manner of articulation should be omitted in the braille edition; however, the informational labels or captions shown with these drawings should be retained as provided in Rule 17, Section 2.

    2. Speech sounds, pronunciations. The transcription of all speech sounds and pronunciations must be according to the particular notation system used in the text. Provisions for the three braille notation systems are given in other sections of this Code rule, as follows: unstressed diacritics in Section 2, diacritics in Section 3, phonetics in Section 4.

    3. Speech rhythm or vocal stress. Follow the directives below when the print text shows accents or stress signs above letters to indicated speech rhythm or vocal stress in certain words or phrases.

        (1) When only a single accent or stress sign is shown in the text, insert the braille accent symbol (4) unspaced before the first vowel or each stressed syllable. Contracted braille may be used except when the stressed vowel is part of a braille contraction.

        (2) If two or more aceents or stress signs are shown, use the braille symbols given below to represent the print signs. The appropriate symbol must be inserted unspaced before the first vowel of the stressed syllable, and uncontracted braille must be used. When the accent or stress sign is shown above an initial capital vowel, the capital indicator must precede the accent symbol.

        dots 3-4-5 acute
        dots 4-5 breve
        dots 1-2-6 grave
        dots 4-5-6 macron

    4. Inflection, intonation, or voice pitch. Do not use tactile graphics to reproduce the spatial pitch or intonation patterns shown in may print texts. This material must be presented linearly in braille using the following braille symbols to represent any print signs that indicate voice inflection, intonation, or pitch.

      dot 6dots 2-5 rising inflection
      dots 2-5dot 3 falling inflection

        (1) When the print text indicates intonation or pitch change between words, the appropriate symbol (preceded and followed by a blank cell) must be inserted between the words. Either of the inflection symbols may begin a new braille line.

        (2) An intonation pattern showing inflection or pitch change within words must be transcribed as follows.

          (a) Set off the sentence or phrase showing the intonation pattern as if it were displayed material according to Rule 14, Section 1. If must first be written in contracted braille. On the next braille line repeat the sentence or phrase, transcribing the words with inflection symbols in uncontracted braille.

          (b) No blank cell must be left before or after the inflection symbol.

          (c) Do not insert hyphens before or after the inflected syllables unless they are shown in print.

    5. Elision, glide, or liaison of sounds. The following braille symbols must be used to represent the print signs that indicate elision, glide, or liaison of sounds.

      dots 3-5dots 26 upper tie-bar
      dots 2-6dots 3-5 lower tie-bar

        (1) If shown standing alone in the print text, either of these symbols may begin a new braille line.

        (2) When the print text shows either of these signs placed between words the appropriate symbol, preceded and followed by a blank cell, must be inserted between the words.

        (3) When the print text shows either of these signs placed between the letter withing a word, no blank cell must be left before or after the braille symbol and the affected word must be transcribed in uncontracted braille.

    6. Termination or separation of sounds. The following braille symbols must be used to represent the print signs that indicate the termination or separation of sounds.

      dot 4dots 1-2-5-6 | single vertical bar
      dots 1-2-5-6dots 1-2-5-6 || double vertical bar

        (1) Follow print copy for the spacing of these symbols. When shown standing alone in the text, either of these symbols may begin a new braille ling.

        (2) When the print text shows these signs unspaced, either between words or between the letters of words, the affected words must be transcribed in uncontracted braille.

    7. Modified print signs. In an effort to indicate fine points of distinction between sound, authors and publishers frequently modify familiar print signs, such as those listed in this Code section. Although it is not possible to set forth explicit instructions for representing these signs in braille, some general directives are given below.

        (1) Conditional usage is often indicated by replacing the regular print sign with one printed in dotted form. When shown infrequently in a text, this usage must be explained in a transcriber's note. However, when it appear throughout a text or when an understanding of the exact print notation is required by the reader, it is recommended that the italic indicator (46) be inserted before the braille symbol for the regular print sign. Include this combination of symbols in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

        (2) Negated usage is usually indicated by means of as slash or an small x superimposed on the regular print sign. When shown infrequently in a text, this usage should be explained in a transcriber's note. However, when it appears throughout a text or when an understanding of the exact print notation is required by the reader, use the following techniques and include the combined symbols in the special symbols list in accordance with Rule 2, Section 5.

          (a) To represent a slashed print sign, insert the slash symbol (456,34) before the braille symbol for the regular print sign.

          (b) To represent an x-ed out print sign, insert an x (1346) before the braille symbol for the regular print sign. EXCEPTION: When shown negated in this manner, the print signs provided in Section 5e above must be represented as follows.

          dots 3-5dots 1-3-4-6dots 2-6 negated upper tie-bar
          dots 2-6dots 1-3-4-6dots 3-5 negated lower tie-bar



  • Developed by
    The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    Copyright © 1996 -