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  • Session 3: Braille Punctuation

    Text Version

    Session 3: Braille Punctuation

    Braille contains the same punctuation marks as is found in print. These marks, with their braille equivalents. are shown in the table below. BE PATIENT while the table loads, it's a long one!

    apostrophe'3
    asterisk*3535
    bar (oblique stroke)/34
    opening bracket/brace[62356
    closing bracket/brace]23563
    colon:25
    comma,2
    dash_3636
    double dash__36363636
    decimal point.
    ditto"52
    dollar sign$256
    ellipsis...333
    exclamation point!235
    fraction line/ or __34
    hyphen-36
    number sign#3456
    opening parenthesis(2356
    closing parenthesis)2356
    pence (sterling coinaged145
    percent%425
    period.256
    pound (sterling coinage)£123
    question mark?236
    double opening quotation mark"236
    double closing quotation mark"356
    single opening quotation mark'6
    single closing quotation mark'3563
    section sign§2343
    semicolon;23
    shilling (sterling coinage)s234

    General Usage:

    Braille punctuation marks follow that of print. For example, in the sentence:

    boy, he sure was afraid!

    the braille would look like:

    S3ex 1

    Notice that in the braille, the spacing is the same as you would see in print. One exception to this rule is one space after a period, unlike two as is normally the case in print.

    Specific Rules for punctuation marks:

    Quotation marks:

    Normally, double quotation marks are used for the outermost quotations, and single quotes are used on inside quoted material, such as in:

    "Bob says that the show 'Melrose Place' is not his favorite," said Kim.

    Sometimes, especially in texts published in Europe, this use of quotation marks is reversed (single quotes on the outside, doubles inside). In braille, you should use the doubles on the outside and singles on the inside. This is in accordance with the general guiding principle to try to save space without comprising clarity!

    Hyphens:

    Hyphens are used to divide words in-between syllables (for use when running out of room on a line) and to separate parts of compound words. Hyphens cannot be used to divide words EXCEPT between syllables. A piece of advice: you need to have a good dictionary.

    If a hyphen is used in print, you need to determine if it is being used to separate a word at the end of a line, or if it is for a compound word. If it is used at the end of a line, you don't need to use a hyphen in braille (unless, of course, you are also at the end of a line!). If the hyphen is for a compound word, then follow the print format.

    Hyphens should never stand alone, and a hyphen should never start the beginning of a new line. In phrases like:

    six- or seven-story house

    a space should be used after the hyphen on "six", just like in print. Like in print, no spaces are left before or after hyphens in normal usage.

    Hyphens are also used to indicate a specific number of omitted letters in a word. When you see this in print, use one hyphen for each omitted letter, without spacing.

    Hyphens are always used to separate inclusive dates, such as "1955-1996". If there is an omission, such as "1965- ", no space is left after the hyphen.

    Dashes:

    Dashes are often difficult to recognize or differentiate from hyphens in normal print, but there is a simple rule:

    Hyphens join, dashes separate.

    No spaces are left before or after dashes, unless it is used to indicate an incomplete sentence. You may have a dash at the beginning or end of a sentence, but don't divide a dash between lines!

    Double Dash:

    Double dashes are typically used in print to indicate ommisions, such as in:

    "The judge sentenced Mr. ____ to consecutive life terms."

    Sometimes in print, you will see a dash used to indicate an omission. Transcribers are generally encouraged not to "edit". Keep in mind, however, that your task is to make the braille easy for the reader, so don't check your common sense and your judgement at the door!

    Number Sign:

    The number sign occupies an unusual place in braille. Some texts will classify the number sign as a "composition" sign, i.e. a specialized symbol that does not appear in print. The number sign preceeds the letters "a" through "j" to create the numbers. For example, to create the number "12":

    345612

    The number sign (dots 3-4-5-6) converts the "a" and the "b" to the number "12". To create numbers, simply preface the appropriate numbers with the number sign!

    If the symbol "#" is used in print to indicate a number, it is indicated in braille as the abbreviation "No." UNSPACED from the the number sign and the appropriate letters for the number that follow.

    The number sign is not cancelled by a punctuation mark, such as in the number "6,023":

    345612422451214

    The number sign is, however, affected by the dash, the question mark, and a parentheses. Also, if a hyphenated number is broken between lines, the number sign needs to be repeated at the beginning of the next line.

    You can also include letters past "j", as in the ordinal number "2nd":

    34561345145

    If you have text such as "Apartment 4a", you will need to use the letter sign, which you will encounter later!

    Sometimes in print you will see the letter "s" used after a number to indicate plural, such as "16s". You should insert the apostrophe (dot 3) before the s, even though it is not in the print.

    Ellipsis:

    The ellipsis is used in print to indicate the omission or a word or group of words, and should be spaced and punctuated as a word. In an italicized sentence, the ellipsis is not italicized -- otherwise, it is treated as if it were a regular word.

    Other punctuation marks:

    The other punctuation marks follow their usage in print. No specific rules or problems should arise with their use in braille!



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