New International Manual
of Braille Music Notation

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CONTENTS
  • Preface
  • Compiler's Notes

    PART ONE: GENERAL SIGNS
  • Purpose and General Principles
  • Basic Signs
  • Clefs
  • Accidentals
  • Rhythmic Groups
  • Chords
  • Slurs and Ties
  • Tremelos
  • Fingering
  • Bar Lines and Repeats
  • Nuances
  • Ornaments
  • Theory
  • Modern Notation

    PART TWO: INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL
  • General Organization
  • Key& Time Signatures
  • Rhythmic Groups
  • Chords
  • Slurs and Ties
  • Tremelos
  • Fingering
  • Bar Lines and Repeats
  • Nuances
  • Ornaments
  • Theory
  • Modern Notation

    PART TWO: INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL
  • General Organization
  • Keyboard Music
  • Vocal Music
  • String Instruments
  • Wind and Percussion Instruments
  • Accordian
  • Instrumental Scores

    APPENDICES
  • Authorities for this work
  • National Signs of 16 Countries
  • Index of Signs in Standard Braille Order
  • Tables of Signs


    Other Resources
  • Contact instructor
  • Send mail to class
  • Main BRL page
  • Contractions Lookup
  • Contractions List
  • Intro Braille course
  • Transcribers course
  • Specialized Codes course

  • VIII> FINGERING

    Signs from Table 8 A.

      1 First finger
      2 Second finger
      3 Third finger
      4 Fourth finger
      5 Fifth finger
      Between fingering, change of fingers on same note
      Omission of first fingering when 2 sets are given
      Omission of second fingering when 2 sets are given

    8-1. Fingering is placed immediately after the note or interval to which it belongs. If a note is dotted, the fingering is placed after the dot or dots.

    8-2. A change of fingers on one note or interval is shown by placing dots 1-4 between the two finger signs. The slur usually appears in print as well as in braille.

    8-3. When the same finger plays two adjacent notes, it is marked after both notes or intervals. Example 8-3.

    8-4. In keyboard music, alternative fingerings are indicated by placing the two finger signs after the note or interval. The order of these signs is immaterial, but once that order is established, it must be strictly maintained.

    8-5. If in such a passage one of the fingerings is omitted for any note(s), its place must be filled by dot 6 for the first fingering or by dot 3 for the second fingering. This applies to keyboard music only. Example 8-5.

    B. String Instruments

    1. Left Hand

    Signs from Table 8 B.

      Thumb                         3 Third finger
       1 First finger                   4 Fourth finger
        2 Second finger                 0 Open string

        Between fingering, change of fingers on same note

    8-6. Left hand fingering signs are used as explained in paragraphs 8-1 to 8-5 with an important difference. Passages with alternative fingerings must be rewritten with in-accords or variants. See Example 9-57.

    8-7. Especially in method books, finger signs are sometimes followed by lines of continuation. These are shown by placing dot 3 after the finger sign at the beginning of such a line. At the end of the line the finger is re-marked after the note, preceded by dot 6. It is because of this use of dots 3 and 6, that when two sets of fingering are given, each set must be rewritten.

    Example 8-7.

    8-8. According to international agreement, thumb signs, like other fingering signs, should follow the note.

    Example 8-8.

    8-9. When the symbol for a thumb is used for another purpose, such as a “Bartok” pizzicato, the braille sign remains the same.

    Example 8-9.

    * bedeutet ein starkes pizzicato, bei welchem die saite auf Griffbrett aufschlagt.

    2. Right Hand

    Signs from Table 8 B.
      Thumb pulgar
      Index finger indice
      Middle finger mayor
      Ring finger anular
      Other single letters; braille as printed.
      Little finger chiquito if ch is printed

    8-10. Instruments that are plucked, such as guitar and banjo, characteristically indicate right hand fingering with the letters p i m and a. Braille uses the printed letters if the print has one letter per note. In print the letters may appear above or below the notes. In braille the letters are usually placed below the notes. If two letters, such as "ch" for the little finger are printed, the letter "x" is used in braille.

    Example 8-10.

    8-11. Rarely, print dots are used instead of letters to represent the "pima" fingering. In that case, letters are used in braille. In example 8-11, a plus sign represents the "p," one dot above the note equals the "i", two dots represents the "m", etc.

    Example 8-11.



    Developed by
    Shodor logoThe Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    Copyright © 1999 the
    North Carolina Central University
    and the Governor Morehead School for the Blind

    Copyright © 1999 The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.