6-1. In print, all slurs and ties are identical except for length and slight variations in shape.
All of the braille signs listed in Table 6 have been approved internationally for use, but their
use is not mandatory. Practice between countries varies widely, i.e., some countries regularly
use signs to indicate whether a slur or tie is "going to" or "coming from" a different in-accord
or staff; some countries use these indications only in complex music, and some countries never
use a "from" sign. The examples in this Chapter are provided to demonstrate the meanings and
possible use of slur and tie signs that are used according to the decisions of local nations.
Signs from Table 6 A.
Slur between two notes or chords
Phrasing slur over more than four notes or chords
Phrasing slur over more than four notes or chords
Beginning and end of phrasing slur on one note
Beginning and end of short
slur on one note
Slur from one in-accord
part to another
Slur from one staff to another
Straight line between staves for voice leading
End of straight line
Slur added by an editor in print
Slur that does not end on a note
Slur for short appoggiatura; "grace note" slur in some countries
6-2. The sign, , is used for a slur of no more than four
notes. It is placed after each note of the phrase except the last.
6-3. When a slur extends for more than four notes, there are two possible slurs for use.
(a) The sign is doubled after the first note of the
phrase and repeated in its single form after the next to last note of the phrase as
in Example 6-3 (a).
(b) The sign is
placed before the first note of the phrase and the sign
is placed after the last note of the phrase as in
Example 6-3 (b).
6-4. When there are two sets of slurs in print, the second form above is used for the longer slur.
6-5. When one slur ends and another begins on the same note, there are two possibilities.
6-6. When a slur passes from one in-accord part to another on the same staff,
the slur sign preceded by dots 4-5-6 is used. In example (a), the fact that the
slur will go to a different in-accord is indicated. immediately. In (b), the
indication does not appear until the point of transfer. Example 6-21(a) shows
the same music with the addition of "from" signs
6-7. When a slur passes from one staff to another, it is preceded by dot 5 as
in example (a) below. The doubled form of the slur is used in (b) because
there are more than four notes in the phrase to be slurred. The other form
of phrasing slur is used in (c). This example includes tracker dots, used only
in bar-over-bar format. Example 6-21(b) shows the addition of a "from" sign to
clarify that the slur ends in measure 2.
6-8. Another difference in practice between countries occurs in the way slurs
are written with chords. In Example 6-7(a) and (b), the slurs are placed after
the written notes of the chords and before the interval signs. In Example 6-7
(c), the slurs are placed after the complete chords.
6-9. In example 6-9, the voice moving from hand-to hand is indicated in print
with a straight line, to indicate voice-leading, rather than as a slur. The
sign is used
for a straight voice-leading line. The sign for the end of this line is also
included, although some countries limit the use of the "ending" sign to more
6-10. Example 6-10 contains two editorial slurs and a standard slur in
music for cello. The slurs added by the editor are printed with dotted lines,
so the sign
is used. That sign is also used for other editorial markings such as dynamics,
6-11. A slur that does not end on a note or the "slur into nowhere"
illustrated for guitar in Example 17-36 and for percussion in Example 18-16.
6-12. A special indication that a slur is associated with a short appoggiatura is
illustrated in Example 11-7. Some countries use
as a "grace note slur" and other countries use
the normal slur, dots 1-4, for all appoggiaturas, as in Example 11-6.
Signs from Table 6 B.
6-13. In print, a tie is notated exactly the same as a slur. With few exceptions,
tie signs are used when the print ligature appears between two identical pitches.
The sign for a single-note tie is placed immediately after the first of the two
tied notes, or after any slur, fingering or tremolo indications connected with
this note. It follows the dots in the case of dotted notes.
6-14. When a note inflected by an accidental is tied over a bar line and is not
re-marked in print, it is handled in three different ways according to national
(a) If the new measure falls on a new braille line, the accidental must be
(b) follow print, re-marking the accidental only if it appears in the
(c) the second note must always be re-marked. Example 6-14 is written
here according to (b), as it appears in print.
6-15. If only one note is tied between two chords, the single-note tie is
placed immediately after the appropriate written note or interval.
6-16. If one or more of the notes of two identical chords are repeated while
the others remain tied, the single-note tie sign must be used for each tied
note or interval.
6-17. If two chords are tied in a succession of chords written with doubled
intervals, the doubling need not be interrupted.
6-18. In some countries the chord tie sign may be doubled as:
6-19. A repeat does not include a tie on the last note or chord of the passage.
See Examples 9-25 (a) and 9-26.
6-20. The accumulating arpeggio is written as follows:
C. More Slurs and Ties for Use in Section-by-section Formats
Signs from Table 6 C.
<!> Slur from another in-accord part
<!> Slur from another staff
<!> Single-note tie between
Single-note tie from another staff
Single-note tie from another in-accord
<!>Single-note tie between staves
6-21. The signs in part (C) of Table 6 are used more widely in music written in
sections. Dots 4-6 added to a slur or tie sign clarifies that it is "coming from"
another in-accord or staff. Examples 6-21(a) and (b) are from the same music as
Examples 6-6 (a) and 6-7(b) respectively.
6-22. As with a slur, dots 4-5-6 before a single-note or chord tie sign indicates
that the tie is held into a different in-accord part. In example 6-22, the sign
clarifies that the tie in the second in-accord
part definitely pertains to the note F.
6-23. As with slurs, dot 5 indicates a change of staff and again, dots 4-6 indicate
that a sign is coming from an in-accord or a staff. In example 6-23 an F from the
left hand is tied to the same note to be held by the right hand in the next measure.
The special tie sign is repeated before the F in the right hand. Because the sign
occurs immediately after an in-accord sign, it is apparent that it must be "coming
from" so the sign with dots 4-6 is not used.
6-24. In example 6-24, the sign for a closing tie falls between a note and its
interval. In order to clarify that the change-of-staff tie sign is "from," dots
4-6 precede that sign in the right hand part.