||Trill [It. trillo; F. cadence, tremblement; G. Triller; Sp. trino]
||Appoggiatura [It.] [F. port de voix; G. Vorschlag;
||Short appoggiatura (formerly: grace note)
||Turn [It. fioritura; F. double, cadence, double cadence;
G. Doppelschlag; Sp. grupito] between notes
||Turn above or below a note
||Inverted turn between notes
||Inverted turn above or below a note
||Before an accidental, inflected lower note of ornament
||Short trill, [short shake, pralltriller, inverted, i.e., upper,
||Extended short trill, shake or pralltriller
||Mordent [It. mordente; F. mordant (pince, pincement);
Upward arpeggio through two or more staves
Downward arpeggio through two or more staves
11-1. Ornaments are placed before the notes or intervals to which they apply. No
special octave mark is required for such notes.
11-2. In Table 11, ornament names are given in several languages to aid recognition.
The braille signs refer to the print symbols that appear in the print edition of
this manual. Performers should be aware of multiple possibilities, and transcribers
should include all information regarding meaning and/or performance that may be
included in print. During the Baroque period and the years since that time, different
composers have given different names to the same ornaments, different ornaments
have been given the same names, and there is little agreement concerning specific
performance details. For example, the "New Grove"1 shows the print symbol for a
trill (dots 2-3-5) with the following definitions, each followed by its "Guide
to Use or Source".
(a)Trill; Ubiquitous Fr. and Ger. from 17th century: the correct usage
(b) Double mordent; Louli(
(c) Appoggiatura-prepared lower mordent; ?Locke, Purcell
(d) Prepared trill; L'Affilard
(e) Ascending trill; Gottlieb Muffat
(f) Vibrato; Mace
(g) Tremolo; LĠAffilard
Each of the following examples in Chapter XI illustrates the first, (a),
listing by the "New Grove".
11-3. For the sign , most performers will
use the ubiquitous meaning, trill, but performances will vary according to the
tempo, the style of the music, and other factors. The print symbol does not
indicate whether the trill is prepared or whether it ends with a turn; performers
may include those features if appropriate.
11-4. If two notes of a chord are to be trilled, both notes must be so marked.
11-5. When only one trill symbol appears, followed by a wavy line across several
notes, a line of continuation (Table 10) may be used as in Example 11-5.
11-6. The most common print symbol for appoggiatura in modern editions is
a note printed in very small type. When this small note has an oblique stroke
through its stem, a very quick, short appoggiatura is indicated. Two or more
appoggiaturas before a normal note must also be executed quickly.
11-7. When an appoggiatura does not have the stroke or is not part of a group,
the normal sign for appoggiatura should be used. The length of the ornament
will depend upon the style of the music.
11-8. If possible, appoggiaturas are written on the same line as the notes
which they embellish. The sign for a short appogiatura may be doubled.
11-9. In each of the next examples, an ornament is followed by the realization
or effect of that ornament sign. Exact rhythmic details may vary according to
the musical style. These examples are provided by Association Valentin Hauy pour
le Bien des Aveugles, Paris. Example 11-9 shows a turn between two notes in print.
In braille the turn sign precedes the first of the two notes.
11-10. In Example 11-10, the dot 6 preceding the turn sign indicates that
the turn sign appears directly above a note in print. In braille, the
sign precedes that note.
11-11. When dots 1-2-3 follow the turn sign, an inverted turn,
is indicated. Example 11-11(a) shows the sign between two notes in print,
and (b) shows it directly above a note.
11-12. Accidentals printed above or below an ornament symbol precede that sign
in braille. If the accidental appears below the symbol in print, it is preceded
by dot 6 in braille. Example 11-12(a) shows a sharp for the lower note of the
turn, and (b) indicates accidentals for both of the auxiliary notes. This
method of marking accidentals applies to any type of ornament.
11-13. Trills are usually indicated in print with letters such as "tr" or a wavy
line with "v-shaped" points. A very short wavy line with only two or three "v's"
was called an upper mordent in some earlier braille manuals. That name is now
called "a misappropriation".2 The ubiquitous name for the ornament is trill.
This is not a continuous trill as with dots 2-3-5. It uses the upper auxiliary
note once or twice and is executed quickly.
11-14. The sign
indicates an extended short trill or short shake. As with all ornaments, the exact
speed and rhythmic combination varies with the performer's interpretation after
considering the composer and the period of the composition.
11-15. The print symbol for a mordent is the same as the print symbol for a short trill with the addition
of a short, vertical or diagonal line through it. In the execution of a mordent,
as in (a), the lower auxiliary note is played once or twice. For an extended
mordent, as in (b), the lower auxiliary is played a few more times.
11-16. When fingering appears with an ornament, the ornament sign is placed before
the note or interval and the fingering follows immediately after it.
11-17. Interval doubling may be used with ornaments providing the doubling continues
through the ornament.
11-18. The doubling must be stopped for the short appoggiatura in Example 11-18.
11-19. Some print symbols indicate a combination of ornaments such as a trill with
a circular twist at the end to indicate a turn or an inverted turn. In this case a
combination of braille signs may be used. A trill sign followed by the appropriate
turn can convey appropriate information to the braille
11-20. The arpeggio up sign,
, is placed before a chord in one part. When an
in-accord is necessary, the sign appears before all notes or chords that are part
of the arpeggiated chord. When the arpeggio extends through more than one part,
is used before notes or chords in all parts
affected. Also see Examples 17-36 and 17-37.
11-21. The number of dots (staccatos) in the braille bebung should equal the number
of printed dots in that ornament.